Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudice is having already decided what a person of another race is supposed to be like based on little or no experience with such people. Discrimination is acting on those negative ideas and thereby treating people of that racial group unfairly.
For example, it was “understood” that Black people attending a movie in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia should not sit on the main floor level. It was reserved for Whites only, so to ensure that would be the case, different rates were charged for tickets. Visiting New Glasgow on business, African-Canadian Viola Desmond’s car developed problems and needed repair. To pass time, she bought a movie ticket and sat on the main floor since she had accidentally left her glasses in her car. She was ordered to leave the theatre, because she had paid the “Negro” rate but was sitting on the main floor. Although she offered to pay the difference, she was arrested, not allowed to consult a lawyer and fined. Her case, years before American Rosa Parks’ case, sparked an end to Nova Scotian segregation.
Scroll down to page 17 for a detailed account of Viola Desmond's extensive challenge to Nova Scotia's segregation laws. From The Historical Construction of Racial Identity and Implications for Reconciliation, by Constance Backhouse, Professor of Law, University of Ottawa. From the canada.metropolis.net website.
The Story of Viola Desmond
Photographs of a classroom presentation about Viola Desmond featuring her sister, Wanda Robson. From the website for Riverview High School, Coxheath, N.S.
The Late Honourable Calvin Woodrow Ruck, C.M.
A tribute to the late Honourable Calvin Woodrow Ruck, C.M. From Debates of the Senate (Hansard), the Senate of Canada.
Tribute to Viola Desmond
Listen to a CBC Radio interview with Cape Breton resident Wanda Robson about her sister Viola Desmond's brave stand against racial discrimination and injustice.
Viola Desmond-A Black Canadian Hero
This news story recounts how Viola Desmond's arrest in a movie theatre led to the dismantling of Nova Scotia's segregation laws. From digitaljournal.com.
Honouring the Black Community
Scroll down to the end of the article for a reference to Leonard Braithwaite, whose actions prompted the demise of segregated schools in Ontario. From the University of Toronto Magagzine.
African Canadians – Historical Facts and Significant Dates
A timeline of important dates and events in Black Canadian history. From the Government of Ontario.
Historical context for the Racism, Violence, and Health Project
This paper reviews historical issues of concern to the Black community in Canada. By Adrienne Shadd. From the Dalhousie University website.
Discrimination in Canada: Our History and our Legacy
An informative academic paper about the history of discriminatory laws and practices in Canada. Includes a reference to Québec's Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms and similar legislation in other Canadian jurisdictions. From the Canadian Institute for the Administration of Justice.
The role of music in the film The Little Black School House
Sylvia Hamilton talks about the role of music in her film The Little Black School House. From YouTube.com.
The Politics of Race: Canada, Australia, the United States
In this online book, click to page 70 to read about the history of racial segregation in Canada. From Google Books.
A Canadian View of Racial Stereotypes
A speech by The Honourable Donald H. Oliver, Q.C. about the history and persistence of racial intolerance and segregation in Canada. From the National Council of Visible Minorities in the Federal Public Service.
Women & Minorities
This speech pays tribute to Viola Desmond for her courageous challenge to racial segregation in Nova Scotia. From the Rideau Hall Blog website.
The Case of Viola Desmond
A brief reference to the 1946 Viola Desmond case in Nova Scotia. From the website for the Department of Justice.
Viola Desmond didn’t set out to make history, but she did
An article about Viola Desmond's legal battle for racial equality in Nova Scotia. From octopusbooks.ca.
African Canadian History Collection
This site features films about historical events that built African Canadian identity. From the National Film Board of Canada.
The Council on African Canadian Education
The Council on African Canadian Education (CACE) is the outgrowth of the Black Learners Advisory Committee (BLAC). Formed in 1990, the BLAC was the response to ongoing struggles of African Nova Scotians to eliminate racism and receive equity in education.
History Will Judge
This paper offers a historical overview of people and events involved in the fight against racial intolerance and segregation in Canadian society. By Professor Constance Backhouse. From the website for the Law Society of Upper Canada.
Tuition Fee Increases and the History of Racial Exclusion in Canadian Legal Education
Scroll down to the section "Racial Discrimination in Legal Education: A Brief History" for a brief reference to the history of school segregation in Canada. From the website for the Ontario Human Rights Commission.
Journey to Justice
A review of the film Journey to Justice. Profiles key players who fought against discriminatory laws and practices in Canada. A University of Manitoba website.
Sylvia Hamilton on The Little Black School House
A brief video clip of Sylvia Hamilton discussing The Little Black School House, a documentary chronicling Canada's racially segregated schools. From YouTube.com.
Leonard A. Braithwaite
A brief note about Leonard Braithwaite's role in the repeal of laws permitting segregation of Ontario's public schools. From the Ontario Black History Society.
Premier Salutes Notable Nova Scotian
A brief obituary for Pearleen Oliver, respected Nova Scotia civil rights activist, author, and church leader. From the Government of Nova Scotia website.
African-Canadian Roads to Freedom
Scroll down to page 21 (document page) for a brief history of school desegregation in Canada. From the document Essex/Kent County African-Canadian Connections to the Ontario Curriculum.
The Computer Riot: The Day the Georgian went black
An account of the "Computer Riot" at Sir George Williams University. From the Some Missing Pages website.
Quebec-1963: Amendment to Hotels Act
The text of a 1963 amendment to Québec's Hotels Act from the Some Missing Pages website.
Black History Month
This site is devoted to the annual celebration of Canada’s Black History Month. See profiles of notable Black Canadians and videos that highlight many of the Black community's outstanding contributions to our shared history and heritage. From Citizenship and Immigration Canada.
HATE - Don't buy in
Hip anti-hate videos and multimedia diversity games. From Calgary’s Don’t Buy In Project.
In Search of Equality
About the struggle for racial equality in Nova Scotia. From the Pictou-Antigonish Regional Library.
Prejudice and Discrimination
Detailed history of discrimination in Canada and related issues. From The Canadian Encyclopedia.
Saint John, New Brunswick
About laws that discriminated against Black Loyalists in Saint John, New Brunswick.
A Canadian View of Racial Stereotypes From The Eyes of a Black Man
Read the text of a speech about racial stereotypes from the website for The Honourable Donald H. Oliver, Q.C., Senator, the Senate of Canada.
Victims of the Times
How former Africville residents dealt with racial discrimination in the local government.
Addressing the Historic Injustice Committed Against the People of Africville
Provincial legislation that addressed past injustices committed against Africville residents.
The Colored Hockey Championship of the Maritimes
How Black hockey players in the Maritimes faced up to racial discrimination.
How football conquered racial discrimination in Edmonton hotels.